These stories were produced by the Howard Center for Investigative Journalism, part of the Philip Merrill College of Journalism at the University of Maryland, in collaboration with journalists from Boston University, the University of Arkansas and Stanford University. The mission of the multidisciplinary center is to teach the next generation of investigative journalists through hands-on investigative projects. The Howard Center is generously funded by $3 million from the Scripps Howard Foundation. It honors Roy W. Howard, one of the newspaper world’s pioneers. He became president of the United Press when he was 29 and 10 years later was named chairman of the board of Scripps Howard.
University of Maryland
Reporting: Aneurin Canham-Clyne, Brittany Nicole Gaddy, Carmen Molina Acosta, Elisa Posner, Gabriel Pietrorazio, Grace Todd, John Kwak, Luciana Perez Uribe Guinassi, Molly Castle Work, Natalie Drum, Nicole Noechel, Sophia Sorensen, Trisha Ahmed and Vanessa Sanchez Pulla. The teams were led by Associate Professor Deborah Nelson and Howard Center Director Kathy Best.
Data analysis for stories, podcast: Nicholas McMillan, Kara Newhouse, Aadit Tambe, Sahana Sridhar, Jack Rasiel, Rachel Logan and Luciana Perez Uribe Guinassi. The team was led by Howard Center Data Editor Sean Mussenden.
Podcast Reporting/Production: Kelly Livingston, Allison Mollenkamp and Callan Tansill-Suddath.
The team was led by Adjunct Lecturer Robert Little.
Digital design/graphics: Aadit Tambe, Molly Castle Work and Luciana Perez Uribe Guinassi. The team was led by CNS Digital Bureau Director Adam Marton.
Audience engagement: Victoria Daniels, Margot Biamon, Julia Gastwirth, Jummy Owookade and Manuela Lopez Restrepo. The team was led by CNS Audience Editor Alexander Pyles.
Photography: Carmen Molina Acosta and Brittany Nicole Gaddy.
Copy editing: Senior Lecturer Sandy Banisky, Communications Manager Josh Land, CNS Audience Editor Alexander Pyles.
Logistical support: Howard Center Program Coordinator Maria Lee.
Public records requests: Angela Mecca, Isabel Cleary, Jessica Anderson, Margaret Attridge, John Bedard, Jakob Bowen, Brianna Corley, Charlotte Crook, Meghan Curtis, Nicole D’Costa, Jillian Diamond, Sarah Dilworth, Mary Dimitrov, Sarah Elbeshbishi, Kimberly Fleming, Charlotte Freedberg, Allison Goldbloom, Alexandra Gopin, Iman Hassen, Michael Hernandez, Alyssa Lepore, Ryan Lewandoski, Hannah McDonald, Matthew Miller, Britta Miranda, Shauneen Miranda, Colleen Niel, Clara Pierce, Zoe Roberts, Aidan Isai, Maya Rosenberg, Lauren Rosh, Julia Rosier, Joseph Ryan, Jaity Saha, Eva Sanchez, Nicolle Schorchit, Lilly Sibel, Sophia Sorensen, Hannah Stryker, Eunice Sung, Kamisha Walker, Kaylan Wallen, Molly Welby, Catherine Wilson, Trisha Ahmed, Julia Arbutus, John Barylick, Katharine Benzan, Timothy Dashiell, Natalie Drum, Brittany Nicole Gaddy, Kelly Livingston, Rachel Logan, Denise Marois-Wolf, Nicholas McMillan, Allison Mollenkamp, Ashkan Motamedi, Kara Newhouse, Glory Ngwe, Gabriel Pietrorazio, Collin Riviello, Vanessa Sanchez, Dimas Syuardi, Aadit Tambe, Gea Ujcic, Jon White, Molly Work, Natalie Adams, Anuoluwapo Adefiwitan, Jake Aiello, James Baldo, Brandie Bland, Adonijah Bourne, Maxwell Boyarsky, Anthony Cabral, Mark Choy, Sara Cohen, Courtney Cohn, Paulina Duque, Spencer Friedman, Lauren Hamilton, James Hartner, Rachel Hunt, Hope Kahn, Michael Kim, Sage Levy, Gabrielle Lewis, Katherine Manganelli, Alyssa McKinney, Brendan Miller, Janae Morris, William Moulec, Adryan Nash, Eric Neugeboren, Nicole Noechel, Daniel Philipose, Constantino Quagliata, Julia Rosow, Yonathan Shimelis, Cassidie Stevens, Gracie Tanner, Jordyn Taylor, Nhaya Vaidya, Mira Varghese, Ryan White, Sara Wiatrak, Yifei Zhao, Megan Barnes, Benjamin Baruch, Julia Bischoff, Delaney Engel, Rebeka Ewusie, Noah Ferguson, Esther Frances, Amber Garrison, James Gordon, Braden Hamelin, Matthew Haraden, Winter Hawk, Amanda Hernandez, Madeline Herron, Cameron Jones, Dylan Josephson, Caroline Klecka, Daniel Lawall, Christopher Lawrence, Mark McClure, Kevin McNulty, Julia Morlino, Lauren Mowry, Nene Narh-Mensah, Nicholas Nimkoff, Samuel Oshtry, Madison Peek, Jamie Pinzon, Bethany Probst, Rosa Pyo, Abigail Russ, Elizabeth Smith, Jessica Umbro, Victoria Vandergriff, Jacob Zakheim.
The teams were led by Senior Lecturer Sandy Banisky and Adjunct Lecturer LaMonte Summers.
Reporting: Jazmyn Gray, Jackson Ripley, Haley Chi-Sing, Nathan Lederman and Alaina Mencinger.
Associate Professor Maggie Mulvihill led the team.
University of Arkansas
Reporting: Abby Zimmardi, Mary Hennigan and Rachell Sanchez-Smith.
Data analysis: Haley Hale, Grayson Green, Ravi Brock, Caroline Sellers, Robert Stewart, Katy Seiter, Emma Dannenfelser and Graham Smithson.
Associate Professor Rob Wells led the teams.
Reporter: Cade Cannedy.
Professional in Residence Cheryl Phillips led the reporting.